What is Mining? 241

Those who are not really interested in cryptocurrency still associate mining with coal, miner’s helmet and a lamp. The Coin Shark decided to make it clear, what is mining and how it is carried out.

Mining is indeed an extraction of contemporary gold – the cryptocurrency. To extract it, miners actually have to explore the virtual space, conducting complex operations. Yes, they don`t have to dig the earth – they carry out calculations. Anyway, how does it all work?

To mine means to issue a cryptocurrency. Everybody can do that. US Federal Reserve System issue dollars, European Central Bank issues euros, but cryptocurrency, like for example BTC or ETH, can be issued by any user. To do that they should “help” functioning of a particular digital currency blockchain that is in charge of recording all cryptocurrency transactions. Blockchain is stored on every user’s device and constantly updates, as there are new transactions made all the time. Mining is the process of creating new blocks to support the operation of a particular cryptocurrency platform. This process includes making calculations. Miner seeks to find the needed algorithm (hash) with particular parameters and, of course to get a reward for that.


Have you already decided to start mining? Wait a minute, it is not that easy. The more computing power a miner has, the higher their chances to generate a block. Don’t think that a modern computer with the cutting-edge processor and graphic card will be enough. Huge mining rigs with hundreds and thousands of graphic cards can grant you really successful cryptocurrency mining. However, industrial-scale mining is too expensive, and thousands of digital miners still mine cryptocurrency without supercomputers and get their money. It is not easy to carry out all the necessary calculations for getting cryptocurrency. Depending on the type of cryptocurrency, the calculations can take minutes and days. If we take Bitcoin as an example, it will be clear that (taking its restricted volume into account) the more coins were mined the more computing power is necessary to generate new blocks. Pools (association of miners) can be created to increase the chances of a successful block generation. Each pool member does a part of calculations and the whole team is then more likely to get a reward. Their reward is distributed considering the amount of computing power provided by each user.

Today people gain thousands and millions dollars out of mining. However, do not expect it to become your family business. Mining will not always be so profitable. For example, Bitcoin`s architecture includes the reduce of the reward for generating blocks. Ten years ago one block was rewarded with 50 BTC, however, after each 210 thousand blocks (approximately once in 4 years) the reward is reduced two times. Moreover energy prices and cryptocurrency market conditions also affect mining. Cryptocurrency mining will stop being that popular in the future, at least in a way it exists today. Anyway you still have the opportunity to board this “mining-train” and make your fortune before it comes to its final stop.

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Blockchain Transactions: How Do They Work and How to Track Them? 162

blockchain transactions

Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin, published an article “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” in 2008 and introduced a fundamentally new way of exchanging money. From that moment on, the need for a third party, like a bank or other financial institution, simply disappeared. In fact, this has become a new financial revolution.

Today we will talk how blockchain transactions are conducted from a technical point of view, how reliable they are, what features they have and how they can be tracked.

Contents:
(please, click the topic to scroll down to it)

  1. How does blockchain work in general?
  2. How are transactions organized?
  3. What features do blockchain transactions have?
  4. How to test a blockchain transaction?
  5. The reasons why transactions can freeze
  6. Conclusion

1. How does blockchain work in general?

We should start with the fact that Bitcoin is the first ever completely digital currency. Unlike electronic money, it does not exist even as a digital file. It is a huge stream of data about all the transactions that have ever been conducted. Blockchain is presented in the form of a giant accounting book, which is available to all network participants.

Each transaction is not stored separately, the information is placed in the blocks. Different networks have different block sizes, for example, until recently one block in the network of Bitcoin “weighed” 1 MB. But the BitMEX report says that after the introduction of the new SegWit protocol, the average size of one block has increased to 1.06 MB, and some have reached 2 MB.

In order to obtain a new block, there are different mechanisms for consensus. The most widespread ones are:

  • PoW (proof of work). Here, the miners need to solve a complex cryptographic equation. After that, a new block is added, for which the system rewards the finder with a certain number of coins.
  • PoS (proof of stake). This mechanism involves adding a new block to a user who has a certain number of coins. The more coins a user has, the more likely he/she will generate a new block.

Each subsequent block stores information about the previous one. Another important feature of blockchain is its decentralization, since information is simultaneously stored by all participants of the system (miners, master nodes). Thus, after the block is added to blockchain, it can not be changed or deleted.

2. How are blockchain transactions organized?

As it was mentioned above, transactions that are carried out in the network of blockchain do not require the participation of a third party. Let’s see how this happens in practice.

Let’s say you want to transfer 0.5 BTC to another person. Before the system recalculates the wallets’ balances (not transfer, namely, the recalculation), this transaction will fall into the so-called Memory Pool – the operational memory of all the miners connected to the network. After this, the blockchain transaction must be confirmed by at least 6 different miners. They (miners) should check the correctness of the transaction:

  • the amount of commission for each byte of information;
  • the physical possibility of adding a transaction to an existing block (if there is too little space left in the block, the transaction is transferred to the next one that still needs to be found).

After these actions, the data on the operation are permanently entered in the blockchain, and the coins are credited to the wallet of the recipient.

3. What features do blockchain transactions have?

Based on the abovementioned information, it is worth highlighting a number of features that are typical for blockchain transactions:

  • Irreversibility. Since the blockchain system is a decentralized system, it is not possible to affect the data that has already been entered in the register. Therefore, it is impossible to mark the already completed operation.
  • Lack of regulation. Due to the absence of the center from which the system is managed, it is impossible to completely prohibit and shut down cryptocurrencies. To do this, you must destroy all the computers of miners.
  • Anonymity. Each blockchain has its own level of anonymity, but in any case, even in pseudonymous anonymous networks, such as Bitcoin, for example, the names and surnames of users are never used for transactions.
  • Reliability. The network algorithm fixes the balance of all the wallets at the same time, but only a user who has a private key can make a transaction from a particular wallet. Subject to observance of elementary security rules, it is not possible to crack the wallet. You can lose your coins only because of your own fault. For example, if you send them to the wrong wallet, infect your computer or smartphone with a virus or somehow let scammers get private keys.

4. How to test a blockchain transaction?

Transactions in the Bitcoin network can be tracked on the site www.blockchain.info. In order to see information about a particular transaction, you need to go to this site and enter a unique transaction hash in the search bar. Then the system displays the actual information.

In this service you can also see information about a particular wallet:

  • transactions in the history (by dates);
  • the total number of coins that passed through the wallet;
  • the list of all addresses which there have ever been interactions with (incoming or outgoing operations);
  • current balance.

5. The reasons why transactions can freeze

The main problem of Bitcoin and many other coins is the speed of blockchain transactions. As for  BTC, this indicator reaches a mark of 7 operations per second. Previously, when the total number of users was small, this was enough. But now, with the growing popularity of the industry, the “line” for the transaction can turn into tens and even hundreds of thousands of unconfirmed operations. You can view the current list, which is updated in real time, on this service.

Some transactions may even freeze in the Memory Pool for a long period of time (up to 72 hours). What factors affect the speed of transaction confirmation?

  • Total pool load.
  • A very small commission. Miners confirm transactions with a larger commission in the first place.
  • The transaction weight is too big, and it simply does not fit into the almost completely filled block. In this case, it will be automatically transferred to the next one.

6. Conclusion

Cryptocurrencies have made a real revolution in the financial sector, on a scale that we still can not comprehend. The number of blockchain transactions is growing every year. In order for everyone to be able to use Bitcoin at the same time (like Visa, for example), it is necessary to solve the problem with bandwidth.

Blockchain transactions have both their advantages: the absence of intermediaries, small commissions, anonymity, security, and their shortcomings: irreversibility, low throughput.

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The Viewers of Adult Videos on Pornhub Will Receive Cryptocurrency Rewards 929

Pornhub

The company Tube8, owned by the popular adult entertainment site Pornhub, is planning to move onto blockchain and tokenize the platform completely. To do so, it will be cooperating with Vice Industry Token.

The visitors of the Tube8 will soon get a chance to receive tokens for performing certain activities on the platform.

The purpose of this upgrade is mainly keeping the viewers. The representatives of Tube8 believe that a regular viewer just watches a couple of videos and leaves, whereas if he/she can potentially be rewarded for doing this, it will be encourage the person to register an account or at least return to the site afterwards.

We would like to remind you that Pornhub has recently started accepting crypto as a payment option for its premium account.

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Buterin, Winklevoss and Others: The Future of the Digital Currency World According to Major Crypto Personalities 1212

experts opinions on crypto

The crypto world has entered the new stage of its development, it has always been volatile, but these couple of weeks have been absolutely crazy: coins are jumping up and down, Bitcoin ETF is on its way, blockchain is taking over the world.

No doubt, crypto specialists and financial experts have a lot to say. Today we came up with a compilation of sayings from the stars of the cryptocurrency universe that we found particularly interesting and important.

The CEO of the crypto exchange Gemini, Tyler Winklevoss believes that the acceptance of cryptocurrency in the world as a means of payment equal to fiat will not happen in the next couple of years:

The vast majority of Wall Street firms are still not participating in the cryptocurrency market, which remains primarily a retail-driven market. This will change over time, but it will take time.

Pantera Capital’s CEO is way more optimistic on this issue. He sees great potential in the blockchain technology, and digital coins, according to him, are “superior form of currency.

Ethereum’s founder Vitalik Buterin wants cryptocurrencies to become more user-friendly and common in the everyday life. He also thinks it may become possible only in case the proper regulatory framework for crypto is developed by the state governments.

I want to be able to walk into a convenience store, get a card and pay a small fee to start using Bitcoin Cash,” he said.

The last, but certainly not least, is the CEO of BitMEX, Arthur Hayes, who has some serious doubts concerning Ethereum. According to his calculations, the price of the world’s #2 coin will drop lower than $100.

It is this moment,” he added, “that Ether goes from a 3-digit to a 2-digit shitcoin.

Although we are sure that experts know what they are talking about, the crypto world is way too unpredictable. We can only wait and see whether the abovementioned predictions turn out to be true or not.

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Andreas Antonopoulos Criticized Bitcoin ETF 732

opinion on bitcoin etf

The well-known author of books about Bitcoin and the founder of his own Bitcoin-business Andreas Antonopoulos published a Youtube video where he expressed his opinion about Bitcoin ETF and explained why they cause so much sensation.

I’m going to burst your bubble. I know a lot of people really want to see an ETF happen because ‘too the moon’ and ‘lambos’ and all that. I think it’s a terrible idea. I still think it’s going to happen… I’m actually against ETFs,” he said.

Antonopoulos explained that he understands why many people are so impressed by the idea of Bitcoin ETF:

Everybody’s so excited about ETFs because what we’ve seen in other markets is that when an ETF becomes available—as we saw in gold—the price really increases dramatically as suddenly that commodity becomes available to a lot more investors and these investors pile on. But the other side of it is that there’s always these claims that the commodities markets are heavily manipulated and opening up these exchange-traded instruments only increases the ability of institutional investors to manipulate—especially [in the case of] large market makers—the prices of commodities, not just in the markets where it’s traded as an ETF but more broadly,” he clarified.


We remind you that the SEC postponed the decision upon Bitcoin ETF until September.

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Marvel Is Not Happy About the Cryptocurrency Startup Using the Name Mentioned in One of Its Movies 637

marvel's trademark was used by crypto startup

Numerous startups try to create the hype using the names of famous people, companies, movies etc. The project Wacoinda was no exception. Its name is particularly similar to the word Wakanda which is a made-up African country in the Marvel movie “Black Panther”.

Wacoinda is a crypto startup aimed at providing financial education for African-Americans. By the way, this is not the first time a project used the concept of “Black Panther”. The famous rapper Akon launched his own digital coin and had plans of creating a crypto city in Africa similar to Wakanda.

Nevertheless, the representatives of Marvel did not quite support the endeavour of Wacoinda. They filed a lawsuit to the US Patent and Trademark Office asking to give them more time to decide whether they want to sue Wacoinda or not. The decision will be taken on the 14th of November.

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A Review of the Odyssey Project or How to Transfer the Sharing Economy into Blockchain? 925

According to many experts, in the next couple of decades humanity will switch to the economy of general use (or sharing). This will concern many things that are accepted today (car, real estate, etc.). Within the framework of this article, we will tell you how this, not yet implemented common-use economy can be transferred to the blockchain. So, the review of the Odyssey cryptocurrency.

Contents:
(please, click the topic to scroll down to it)

  1. What is the Odyssey cryptocurrency?
  2. Odyssey in figures
  3. Forecasts
  4. Conclusion

1. What is the Odyssey cryptocurrency?

The main mission of the project is to combat the centralized sharing economy. In the near future, as the developers themselves assure, joint use will be quite ordinary, and personal possession, on the contrary, will become an unacceptable luxury. That is, within the framework of this economic model, You will not personally have anything, but You will be able to use what you want. Such an approach should lead mankind away from the consumer society and substantially raise the overall level of well-being.

This project comes from Singapore; its main idea is the creation of a decentralized version of the economy of the future, which will be oriented towards the common use of various things. The developers want to significantly reduce costs and increase the efficiency of marketplace applications, as well as create their own Odyssey system.

The main consultant of the project is the general director of TRON Justin Sun. Major Odyssey investors are:

  • Eddie Wu, Alibaba’s co-founder;
  • investment trust Vision Plus Capital;
  • TRON Foundation, etc.

The main principles of Odyssey:

  • everything can be combined and shared;
  • everyone has the right to possess information;
  • all participants in the system can count on income, which will depend on their initial contribution;
  • there should not be a monopoly in the sharing economy;
  • the new economic model will be effective only if it becomes autonomous.

Summarizing, we can say that the Odyssey system is a kind of marketplace for sharing, based on blockchain technology.

2. Odyssey in figures

This coin appeared relatively recently, only in early 2018. If you look at the chart, you can see that Odyssey’s currency exchange rate has significantly decreased from $0.09 to today’s $0.003.

The total issue is 10 billion tokens, now 4.75 billion are issued. Market capitalization as of mid-August 2018 is slightly more than $17 million. The coin takes the 244th place in the global rating of CoinMarketCap.

3. Forecasts

The Odyssey (ocn) cryptocurrency is now showing a negative yield, it is, to a large extent, related to the general trend in the market. It is rather difficult to predict the price of cryptocurrency in such conditions. Nevertheless, this project is potentially promising for the following reasons:

  • developers follow the schedule written in the project road map;
  • in the future, it is planned to create its own stock exchange;
  • the team actively works on the project, periodically consults the community through polls, voting, etc .;
  • the Odyssey project is closely connected with TRON, which ranks 12th in the rating of all cryptocoins;
  • economy of common use is the vector where the movement of mankind has already begun.

4. Conclusion

If you plan to invest in Odyssey, you should count on a long time, because the project is still too young and for its development there is still a lot to do. The sharing economy is also not tomorrow and not even in a year will become the norm, so that the global Xs in the near future should not be waited for. Also do not forget about diversification of your investment portfolio, this will significantly reduce the risks of a complete loss of capital. The Coin Shark continues to monitor the news of the cryptocurrencies and look for new promising projects.

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